Geography Notes – Important Definitions – Static Science GK Material for Competitive exams like SSC, Railways etc

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Geography Notes – Important Definitions and Facts

  • Meteors are also called shooting stars. They are fragments of rocks coming towards the earth which are formed due to the collision of asteroids with one another. Due to heat produced by air resistance meteors burn up before they reach to the surface of the Earth.
  • Comets are made up of frozen gases which hold together rocky materials and metallic material. A comet becomes visible when it travels close to the Sun.
  • The sky is divided into units known as Constellations. At present there are 88 recognized constellations.
  • The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean of the world. It is the deepest ocean with average depth of 4,200 m. The Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean is the world’s deepest trench with a depth of 11,033 m.
  • The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean in the world. It is the busiest ocean for trade and commerce. Atlantic Ocean shipping routes connects Western Europe and N.E. United States of America which are the two most industrialized regions.
  • The Indian Ocean is the only ocean named after a country. It is deeper than Atlantic Ocean.
  • The flow of large amount of water in a definite direction with a great intensity is known as Ocean Current. The current which are flowing from tropical zones of lower latitudes to higher temperate and sub polar zones are known as hot water currents. The currents flowing from higher latitudes to lower latitudes are known as cold water currents.
  • The earth is divided into three parts Crust, Mantle and Core. Crust is the thinnest layer of the earth. The part of the Earth where life exists is called the Biosphere. The uppermost layer of the Earth’s crust which is capable of supporting life is called Lithosphere.
  • The Earth rotates, west to east on its axis once in 24 hours approximately. The axis of earth is not vertical.It makes an angle of 23 degree 30′ with the vertical or 66 degree 30′ with the plane of the Earth’s orbit.
  • The rotation of the Earth on its tilted axis causes days and nights to be of different length in different parts of the Earth.
  • On June 21, the Earth is so located in its orbit that the Sun is overhead on the Tropic of Cancer.
  • On June 21, the Northern Hemisphere is tipped towards Sun having the longest day, while the Southern Hemisphere is tipped away from the Sun having the shortest day.
  • On December 22, the Earth is in an equivalent position on the opposite points in its orbit, so the Southern Hemisphere is tipped towards the Sun and The Northern away from it. The Sun is overhead on the Tropic of Capricorn, resulting in the shortest day in the Northern Hemisphere.

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